KITCHEN MATH MADE EASY

 

Whether you're a novice or pretty well seasoned, you'll want to keep these charts handy.

 

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How to Know What You Need

 

Making a shopping list can be tricky if you don't know how many beans to buy to yield 4 cups cooked. Here's our guide:

 

When the recipe calls for: You need:

 

4 cups shredded cabbage 1 small cabbage

1 cup grated raw carrots 1 large carrot

2 1/2 cups sliced carrots 1 pound raw carrots

4 cups cooked fresh green beans 1 pound green beans

1 cup chopped onion 1 large onion

4 cups sliced raw potatoes 4 medium-sized potatoes

1 cup chopped sweet pepper 1 large pepper

1 cup chopped tomato 1 large tomato

1 cup diced canned tomatoes 14 1/2 ounce can, drained

4 cups sliced apples 4 medium-size apples

1 cup mashed banana 3 medium-size banana

1 teaspoon grate lemon rind 1 medium-size lemon

2 tablespoons lemon juice 1 medium-size lemon

4 teaspoons grated orange rind 1 medium-size orange

1 cup orange juice 3 medium-size oranges

4 cups sliced peaches 8 medium-size peaches

2 cups sliced strawberries 1 pint strawberries

1 cup soft bread crumbs 2 slices fresh bread

1 cup bread cubes 2 slices fresh bread

2 cups shredded Swiss

or Cheddar cheese 8 ounces cheese

1 cup egg whites 6 or 7 large eggs

 

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Safety First

 

Before you start cooking, scrub your hands with soap and warm water for at least 20 seconds. Rinse well, dry with paper towel, then use the towel to turn off the faucet.

 

After handling uncooked fish, poultry, meat or raw eggs, use hot, soapy water to wash work surfaces and utensils.

 

Be sure to refrigerate food within 2 hours of cooking -- or, on hot days, no more than 1 hour.

 

Don't overload the fridge; air should have room to circulate.

 

Thaw frozen food in the refrigerator, never on a countertop.

 

Keep the refrigerator temperature at 40 F. and the freezer should register 0 F.

 

To eliminate cross-contamination:

 

Store meat, fish or poultry in well-sealed packages or on

plates to catch dripping juices.

 

Rely on one container to carry raw meat or poultry to the

grill, another for serving.

 

Boil marinate or basting liquid for 3 minutes before consuming.

 

Use one spoon for stirring, a separate one for tasting.

 

Occasionally sanitize cutting boards by soaking the surface

in a solution of one teaspoon bleach per quart of water. Let

stand several minutes, the rinse and air-dry.

 

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Measure for Measure

 

Quick, how much cooked white rice does one raw cup yield? Answer: three cups. We unravel this and other mysteries cooks face time and time again:

 

Food Amount Measure

 

Butter/Margarine 1/2 stick 1/4 cup or 4 tablespoons

1 stick 1/2 cup or 8 tablespoons

1 pound 4 sticks or 2 cups

 

Cheese 8 ounces cream cheese 1 cup

8 ounces cottage cheese 1 cup

4 ounces Parmesan 1 1/4 cups grated

 

Chocolate Chips one 12-ounce package 2 cups

 

Cookies 1 cup crumbs 19 chocolate wafers

22 vanilla wafers

14 graham cracker squares

 

Cream 1 cup heavy cream 2 cups whipped

 

Dried Beans & Peas 1 cup 2 1/4 cup cooked

 

Herbs 1 tablespoon fresh 1 teaspoon dried

 

Pasta 8 ounces elb ow macaroni 4 cups cooked

8 ounces fettuccine 3 3/4 cups cooked

8 ounces angle hair 5 1/2 cups cooked

8 ounces spaghetti 4 cups cooked

 

Rice 1 cup white 3 cups cooked

1 cup converted 4 cups cooked

1 cup instant 1 1/2 cups cooked

1 cup brown 3 to 4 cups cooked

 

Sugar 1 pound granulated 2 cups

1 pound brown,

firmly packed 2 1/4 cups

1 pound confectioners' 4 1/2 cups

 

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Easy Exchanges

 

Measure twice, cut once is the carpenter's code; it works well for cooks, too. This chart will help you figure out equivalents:

 

1/8 teaspoon or less = a pinch

 

3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon

 

4 tablespoons = 1/4 cup

 

5 1/3 tablespoons = 1/3 cup

 

8 tablespoons = 1/2 cup

 

10 2/3 tablespoons = 2/3 cup

 

16 tablespoons = 1 cup

 

2 cups = 1 pint

 

4 cups = 1 quart

 

2 pints = 1 quart

 

4 quarts = 1 gallon

 

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In-a-Pinch Substitutions

 

It can happen to the best of us: Halfway through a recipe, you find you're out of a key ingredient. Here's what to do:

 

Recipe calls for: You may substitute:

 

1 cup corn syrup 1 cup sugar + 1/4 cup additional

liquid used in recipe.

 

1 tablespoon prepared mustard 1 teaspoon dry mustard + 1

tablespoon water

 

2 tablespoons flour 1 tablespoon cornstarch

(for thickening)

 

1 teaspoon lemon juice 1/4 teaspoon white vinegar

(not balsamic)

 

1 square unsweetened chocolate 3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa

powder + 1 tablespoon butter

 

1 cup buttermilk 1 tablespoon vinegar or lemon

juice + milk to equal 1 cup

 

1 cup firmly-packed brown sugar 1 cup sugar + 2 tablespoons molasses

 

1 cup cake flour 1 cup less 2 tablespoons all-purpose

flour

 

1 clove garlic 1/4 teaspoon garlic powder

 

2 cups tomato sauce 3/4 cup tomato paste + 1 cup water

 

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source: Family Circle magazine

May 2006 - pages 208-209

http://www.familycircle.com